September 16, 2023
Three-dimensional schematic of a memristor made of multilayer hexagonal boron nitride. Photo: Mario Lanza / KAUST ‚ÄčThe invention of the transistor by

Three-dimensional schematic of a memristor made of multilayer hexagonal boron nitride. Photo: Mario Lanza / KAUST‚ÄčThe invention of the transistor by Bell Laboratory in 1947 ushered in an era of electronic devices that were smaller and ran cooler using far less power than their bulky and fragile vacuum tube counterparts. Transistors function as a binary switch to facilitate electrical current from off to on states. Radios, calculators and telephones were among the first wave of instruments to replace vacuum tubes with the new semiconductor technology.